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Idaho National Laboratory

Engineering Research and Development


Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. and Northern Research and Engineering Corporation, 1997, Development of a More Fish-Tolerant Turbine Runner, Advanced Hydropower Turbine Project, ARL Report No. 13-97/M63F, DOE/ID-10571.

Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. and Northern Research and Engineering Corporation conducted a research program to develop a turbine runner which will minimize fish injury and mortality at hydroelectric projects. An existing pump impeller provided the starting point for developing the fish-tolerant turbine runner. The Hidrostal pump is a single-bladed combined screw/centrifugal pump which has been proven to transport fish with minimal injury. The focus of this research project was to develop a new runner geometry which is effective in downstream fish passage and hydroelectric power generation. A flow of 1,000 cfs and a head in the range of 75 ft to 100 ft were selected for conceptual design of a new runner.

Conceptual design of the new runner began with a reevaluation of studies which have been previously conducted to identify probable sources of injury to fish passing through hydraulic turbines. Criteria relative to hydraulic characteristics which are favorable for fish passage were prepared based on a reassessment of the available information. Important criteria used to develop the new runner design included low-pressure change rates, minimum absolute pressures, and minimum shear. Other criteria which are reflected in the runner design are a minimum number of blades (only two), minimum total length of leading edges, and large flow passages.

Flow characteristics of the new runner were analyzed using two-dimensional and three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic models. The basic runner geometry was initially selected using the two-dimensional model. The three-dimensional model was used to investigate the flow characteristics in detail through the entire runner and to refine the design by eliminating potential problem areas at the leading and trailing edges. Results of the analyses indicated that the runner has characteristics which should provide safe fish passage with an overall power efficiency of approximately 90%.

Franke, Gary F., Donald R. Webb, Richard K. Fisher, Jr., Dilip Mathur, Paul N. Hopping, Patrick A. March, Michael R. Headrick, Istvan T. Laczo, Yiannis Ventikos, Fotis Sotiropoulous, 1997, Development of Environmentally Advanced Hydro Turbine Design Concepts, Voith Hydro, Inc., Report 2677-0141, INEL/EXT-97-00639.

The conceptual design team brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed.

The project was divided into tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Three families of design concepts were chosen for further investigation addressing the most significant problem elements. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. During this task, the team studied the state of available information, the mechanisms for injury and methods to predict injury, and defined which design elements to address to improve fish survival at hydro sites. In the report, additional controlled experiments needed to further clarify the effect of turbine geometry and the associated flow conditions on injury mechanisms are defined. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented.

The results of the Tasks are assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. Significantly, improvements in fish passage survival are achievable and design concepts can be implemented immediately at existing hydro projects. While the fundamental focus of the solutions developed is in the environmental arena, many of the issues can also improve plant efficiency thereby improving project economics and reducing the need for replacement energy generation from nonrenewable sources. In addition, improvements reducing cavitation and vibration will result in lowered maintenance requirements for operating utilities implementing the designs.

U.S. DOE, 1997, Hydropower Research and Development, March, DOE/ID-10575.

This report represents the first attempt at developing a single point source for information on current and proposed hydropower research and development (R&D), environmental as well as engineering, being conducted by government agencies (Federal, State, local), utilities, and other private companies. It is hoped that this report will be useful to those conducting hydropower R&D, particularly during these times of declining R&D funding.


Chappell, J. R., 1992, Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program Engineering Research and Development 1977B1991 Summary Report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, NTIS No. DOE/ID-10376.

The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the Engineering Research and Development subprogram of the U.S. DOE Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. The purpose of the Engineering and Development program was to promote, encourage, and support the development of hydropower. DOE provided funds to develop new technologies and adapt novel applications of existing related technologies to the hydropower field. This report summarizes the lessons learned as well as some of the successes and failures of the individual projects. The purpose of this report is to document not only the successful projects that were explored but also to delineate the deficiencies of the projects that were not found to be viable for the intended application to hydropower. Some of the concepts explored were found to be more suitable to other applications than the proposed use for hydropower at the time the project was investigated. As a result, a few concepts explored were found to be commercially viable and were continued in the private sector.

Fontaine, T. A., 1992, "The Accuracy of Rainfall-Runoff Model Simulations of Extreme Floods," ASCE Journal of Hydraulic Engineering.

The accuracy of rainfall-runoff model simulations of extreme floods is evaluated using two models, two catchments, and two storms. HEC-1 and HSPF (a modified version of the Stanford Watershed Model) of the 100-year flood of July 1, 1978, on the Kickapoo River (drainage area = 690 sq. km) in southwest Wisconsin are compared for accuracy. The two models are also compared for hypothetical floods (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 times the 100-year flood) on the Whiteoak Creek catchment (drainage area = 9.3 sq. km) in eastern Tennessee. Error in peak discharge and runoff volume were significant, as were the differences between the two modeling approaches. Error in areal mean rainfall was considered to be a major source of uncertainty in the calibration of HSPF. The results indicate that additional research is needed to determine the role of model selection, calibration data and the experience of the modeler in runoff model error.


The University of Minnesota, 1989, Performance Tests and Calibrations of the St.Anthony Falls Independent Turbine Test Facility, Project Report No. 288, St.Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory, Minneapolis, Minnesota, NTIS No. DOE/ID-12617.

The results of several tests to determine the performance characteristics of the independent test facility for testing hydraulic pump and turbine models are included in the report. The instrumentation is described and the measurement uncertainties documented and analyzed. Data collection equipment and software programs are also discussed.

Acres International Corporation, 1989, Report on Siphon Penstocks for Hydroelectric Projects, Amherst, New York, NTIS No.DOE/ID-12356.

The report contains the descriptions of 11hydropower plants that use siphon penstocks. The design, construction, operation, and maintenance are considered and the benefits of siphon penstocks are summarized. Data, drawings and photographs of the 11 projects are included.

Ott Engineers, Inc., 1989, Inexpensive Cross-Flow Hydropower Turbine at Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric Project-Field Test Report, Bellevue, Washington, NTIS No. DOE/ID-12481-2.

The Arbuckle Mountain Plant was tested during two separate testing periods. The first tests were performed in January of 1988 and utilized the dye dilution method of flow measurement. The analysis of the first test data indicated some problems with the flow measurements and a second series of tests were performed in March 1989 using dye tagging and a velocity head probe to measure the flow. The report includes the data and analyses from both series of tests.


Ott Water Engineers, Inc., 1988, Inexpensive Cross-Flow Hydropower Turbine at Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric Project, Final Construction and Cost Report, Redding, California, NTIS No.DOE/ID-12481-1.

This report documents the construction details as built and the final cost of the Arbuckle Mountain Cross-Flow Hydro Plant built near Redding, California.


Chappell, J. R., 1984, "Future of Hydropower," Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG&G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, Idaho, April 1984. Presented at the Small Hydropower Workshop, University of Missouri-Columbia, April, NTIS No. DE-84011452 or EGG-M-09284.

This paper discusses the history, current status, and resource potential, as well as impediments and factors, favoring hydropower development in the United States. Future hydroelectric capacity is estimated from FERC permit and license applications, and from several private and government agency projections.

Chappell, J. R., 1984, Hydropower Hardware Descriptions, EG&G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, Idaho, Presented at Small Hydropower Workshop, University of Missouri-Columbia, April, NTIS No. DE-84011614 or EGG-M-09384.

This report discusses the differences in 11types of turbines. Their characteristics are tabulated, and their operating ranges and geometry are illustrated by use of graphs and drawings. The primary conventional types are discussed, as well as the new or nonconventional types researched by DOE.

Chappell, J. R., 1984, New Technology for Small Hydropower Installations, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG&G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, Idaho, NTIS No. DE-84011180 or EGG-M-09184.

This paper is a general discussion of new technologies, including hardware and methodologies, that may be used in developing small hydropower installations. The primary source of information is the results of the R&D projects funded under the DOE Small Hydropower Program. The paper is divided into the following categories: turbine/generator, head augmentation, nonconventional concepts, structure and construction, system management, controls, and reconnaissance and feasibility.

Energy Research and Applications, Inc., 1984, Application of Marine Thrusters as Ultra-Low Head Hydroturbines, Test Report, Santa Monica, California, NTIS No. DE-84013096 or DOE/ID-12201-T3.

This report presents the results of the field test of a hydropower plant utilizing a marine thruster for a turbine at the Modesto Irrigation District. The unit used 386 cfs of water at 13 ft of head to produce 235 kW. The cost of the thruster package was $343/kW of installed capacity.


Energy Research and Applications, Inc., 1983, Field Test of Ultra-Low Head Hydropower Package Based On Marine Thrusters, Final Report, Santa Monica, California, NTIS No. DE-84013685 or DOE/ID-12201-T2.

The report is the final report on the design, construction, equipment procurement, installation, and site modeling for a hydropower plant using a marine thruster as a turbine. The installation was the Stonedrop site in the Modesto Irrigation District canal system. Also included is a breakdown of the costs and the results of a hydraulic model test that was performed to resolve flow problems.

F.W.E. Stapeshorst, Inc., 1983, Test of Ossberger Cross-Flow Turbine of Bradford Hydroelectric Station, Bradford, Vermont, NTIS No.DE-84007079 or DOE/ID-12314-T3.

This report covers the analysis of the efficiency test data of the 708 Shaft HP Ossberger cross-flow turbine at Central Vermont Public Service Company's Bradford Station.

Chappell, J. R., 1983, Recent DOE-Sponsored Hydropower Engineering Research, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG&G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, Idaho. Presented at the Waterpower 1983 International Conference on Hydropower, Knoxville, Tennessee, September, NTIS No. DE-84000809 or EGG-M-02983.

This paper provides an overview of U.S. DOE Engineering Development Research activity since Waterpower 1981. General results of 11projects that have been completed since Waterpower 1981 are presented and compared. Continuing efforts are also described briefly. DOE has sponsored four projects dealing with the use of pumps as turbines. This approach results in capital cost savings, shorter time for completing a hydropower plant, wider variety of off-the-shelf equipment available, and better maintenance services. Results are summarized for feasibility studies, laboratory tests, and in-the-field experience surveys of the use of pumps as turbines. Other projects discussed include microhydropower plants (less than 100 kW in capacity), head augmentation devices, Schneider engines, the use of marine thrusters as turbines, low cost cross-flow turbines made of plastic, variable speed constant frequency generators, hydraulic air compressors, scroll motor turbines and modular float-in powerhouses. The paper also discusses some of the technologies where future research may prove fruitful.

Chappell, J. R., and M. J. McLatchy, 1983, DOE Small-Hydropower Engineering Development Program Overview, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG&G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, Idaho, and U.S. DOE Idaho Operations Office, IdahoFalls, Idaho, Presented at American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting, Detroit, Michigan, June, NTIS No. DE-83015127 or EGG-M-01983.

This paper discusses the 35 small hydropower engineering development projects funded by U.S. DOE. Results to date indicate that some of the concepts will significantly reduce the capital cost, and will reduce the time to get a plant on-line by nearly a factor of two.

Rice, W., 1983, Hydraulic Air Compressor as Part of an Ultra-Low Head Hydropower System, Final Report, January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981. Arizona State University, NTIS No. DE-82018428 or DOE/ID-12198-13.

Analytical and experimental research was conducted to advance design and application tools, and to gather information concerning the hydraulic air compressor (HAC) for use in ultra-low head hydropower systems. An existing analytical model was significantly improved and an experimental HAC was constructed, instrumented, and tested. A computer program was used to calculate and tabulate the applied head, water and air flow rate, depth, pressure, compressor size, and geometrical relationships. A preliminary design of a HAC hydropower plant was made and the cost study of a typical site is presented.

Moses, H. L., et al., 1983, Optimization of a Diffuser/Ejector for Ultra-Low Head Hydroelectric Systems, Final Report, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, NTIS No. DE-83011251 or DOE/ID-12208-T1.

This study investigated head augmentation for ultra-low head hydroelectric systems by use of an ejector in the draft tube. A detailed analytical and experimental study was conducted of the flow in a conical diffuser with a peripheral wall jet. The results were then used to design and test a small laboratory model of an axial-flow turbine. The tests indicated an appreciable increase in head could be achieved and predicted by the analysis. Under certain circumstances with excess flow available, the increase in head would result in a significant decrease in turbine size and cost for a fixed power. However, for limited flow, the head increase would decrease the output power and give no economic advantage.

Liu, H., and M. Fessehaye, 1983, Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Cherepnov Water Lifter, University of Missouri-Columbia, NTIS No. DE-83007673 or DOE/ID-12206-1.

The Cherepnov lifter is a device that extracts energy from the flow of water at one head and uses the energy to lift a portion of the water to a higher head. Such a lifter can be used in hydroelectric power generation to increase the head and allow the use of smaller, less expensive turbines and powerhouses. The research reported consists of a theoretical analysis, including the derivation of equations and setting up computer models, and later experimental tests verifying the derived equations and computer models, as well as providing information that could not be obtained from theory. A later phase of the project is reported in The Economics of Cherepnov Water Lifter, DOE Report No. DOE/ID-12206-2.

Liu, H., and R. Geekie, 1983, Economics of Cherepnov Water Lifter for Low Head Hydropower, University of Missouri-Columbia, NTIS No. DE-83007639 or DOE/ID-12206-2.

This report documents an economic analysis of the use of the Cherepnov water lifter to increase the head and decrease the flow, allowing the use of low-cost turbines and powerhouses in low head hydropower plants. The economics of the Cherepnov lifter for use as a pump to supply water is very good for both small and large systems, even in places where electricity is available for pumps. However, the economics of using the lifter for hydroelectric power generation is not good, especially for large and high head systems. The lifter may still be economically viable in micro hydro-power low head systems where low-cost tanks are available and PVC pipes can be used. Earlier technical studies of the Cherepnov lifter are documented in A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Cherepnov Lifter, DOE Report DOE/ID-12206-1.

EG&G Idaho, Inc., 1983, Microhydropower Handbook. Volume 1, NTIS No. DE-83006697 or ID0-10107(V.1).

Microhydropower Handbook, Volume 2, NTIS No. DE-83006698 or ID0-10107(V.2).

This handbook defines microhydropower as hydropower produced in quantities of 100 kW or less. The handbook is written so that a lay person with mechanical aptitude will have sufficient information to evaluate site potential, lay out a site, select and install equipment, and operate and maintain the completed system. Volume 1 establishes a foundation for the engineering principles, leads the individual through design, construction, and operation, and provides information on obtaining financing and licensing. Volume 2 is the appendix volume containing supplementary information, Federal and State agencies and their addresses, a glossary, and useful forms.


Chappell, J. R., et al., 1982, Pumps-as-Turbines Experience Profile, EG&G Idaho, Inc., NTIS No. DE-83001143 or ID0-10109.

The report presents the results of a survey of owners, operators, consultants, engineering firms, and manufacturers to collect information on their experience in the use of pumps operating in reverse as turbines. The survey consisted of literature searches, telephone calls, questionnaires to selected individuals, conferences with consultants, and site visits. Information is presented on the types of pumps used, the methods of estimating their performance, modifications required, actual results of field tests if available, economics, operation and maintenance, methods used for control, and sources for hardware and engineering assistance.

Rothbart, G., and R. Fullwood, 1982, Development of a Variable Shaft Speed Alternator, Science Applications, Inc., NTIS No. DE-82012334 or DOE/ID-12203-T1.

The development of a variable speed alternator, with output voltage and current synchronized and phase-locked to the power grid, is reported. The variable shaft speed alternator consists of an ordinary unmodified wound-rotor motor, with polyphase excitation controlled by solid state switching and a hybrid of analog and digital circuitry. This circuitry senses both shaft speed and line phase, resulting in logic levels that control the current flow in each rotor coil. The laboratory unit was tested under no load, nearly-resistive passive load, and power and power grid load conditions. Efficiencies were measured for converting mechanical power to electrical over a wide range of shaft speeds. The unit was found to be capable of producing power at speeds down to 37% of synchronous speeds.

McCullough, J. E., and J. T. Dieckmann, 1982, Demonstration of Scroll Motor Advantagesfor Ultra-Low Head Hydroelectric Power Generation, September 1980-November 1981 Final Report, Arthur D. Little, Inc., NTIS No.DE-82009792 or DOE/ID-12202-T1.

This effort consisted of analytical and hardware development leading to the design, fabrication, and testing of a laboratory model scroll hydraulic motor. The purpose was to investigate the potential advantages of this scroll motor as a turbine in an ultra-low head hydroelectric power plant. The model scroll motor was designed, built, and tested at heads up to 10 ft and speeds up to 270 rpm. The maximum model output shaft power was 400 W. The maximum efficiency obtained was between 30 and 40%. The low efficiency was attributed to internal leakage and friction in the speed increasing gear box.

Albert H. Halff Associates, Inc., 1982, Float-In Module for Retrofitting Navigation Dams for Power Generation. Volume I. Feasibility Report, NTIS No. DE-82010719 or DOE/ID-12161-T2(V.1).

Float-In Module for Retrofitting Navigation Dams for Power Generation. Volume II. Structural Drawings. NTIS No. DE-82010936 or DOE/ID-12161-T1(V.2).

This feasibility study investigated the concept of retrofitting navigation dams on inland waterways with powerhouses by use of prefabricated, standardized powerhouse modules that could be constructed elsewhere and floated into place. Twelve navigation dams in the Arkansas River Navigation System were used to evaluate the concept. Economic analyses based on the preliminary designs of the float-in plants showed the main benefit from the technique to be reduced construction time and associated costs.

Cooper, P., and R. Worthen, 1982, Feasibility of Using Large Vertical Pumps as Turbines for Small-Scale Hydropower, Final Technical Report, Ingersoll Rand Research, Inc., NTIS No.DE-82004267 or DOE/ID-12160-T1.

The object of the project was to establish the economic and technical feasibility of operating pumps as turbines in small-scale hydropower plants. The economics were shown to be competitive; 87% turbine efficiencies were obtained in actual tests.

Truebe, J., and M. Prooker, 1982, Modular Innovations in Upstream Fish Passage, Lakeside Engineering, 1982. NTIS No. DE-82010268 or DOE/ID-12207-T2.

This study examines two specific aspects of upstream fish passage design and operation: (a)the incorporation of modular components and structural elements into historically proven passage designs, and (b) the appropriate integration of water saving (and hence energy saving) techniques and hardware into the fish passage designs.


Radkey, R. L., and B. D. Hibbs, 1981, Definition of Cost-Effective River-Turbine Designs Final Report, September 30, 1980-December 31, AeroVironment Inc., NTIS No. DE-82010972 or AV-FR-81/595.

Two system concepts were evaluated in this study: (a) a ducted turbine system and (b) a free-rotor system. The ducted turbine uses an augmenter duct to increase flow through the turbine rotor, and the free-rotor system is essentially an underwater windmill. It was concluded that both ducted and free-rotor turbine systems can produce cost-effective electricity. Energy cost estimates for both systems (10-ft diameter) indicate that either could produce energy at less than 50mill/kWh.

Mayo, Jr., H. A., 1981, Powerhouse Gate: Concept Definition Study, Allis-Chalmers Corp., NTIS No. DE-82006226 or DOE/ID-12200-T1.

A study was made of the dual use of flood gate spaces for both power plants and flood flow passages. A powerhouse gate was designed that would fit in the space of an existing dam floodgate. The unit would be used to generate power during periods of normal flow but be hoisted to permit water flow beneath it during floods. The report addresses structural design, cost estimates, and applicability of the concept.

Energy Research and Applications, Inc., 1981, Design of Low Cost, Ultra-Low Head Hydropower Package Based on Marine Thrusters Final Report, Santa Monica, California, NTIS No. DE-82004813 or DOE/ID-12201-T1.

The use of marine thrusters operated as turbines is examined as a means to reduce the cost of low head hydroplants. Equipment costs were estimated at approximately $260/kW for units between 40 kW and 630 kW capacity, operating at 6 to 15 ft of head. Comparative concept designs at the feasibility study level of detail, using marine thruster packages or conventional hydropower equipment, indicate installed cost savings of 50 to 60% for the thrusters.

James Hansen and Associates, 1981, Feasibility of a Small Scale Pumped Storage Demonstration Project, Hibbing, Minnesota, Springfield, Vermont, for Hibbing Public Utilities Commission, NTIS No. DE-81028678 or DOE/TIC-1028678.

This feasibility study is of a small-pumped-storage hydropower plant that would utilize abandoned iron mine pits for the water storage reservoirs. Six alternatives were studied, which include gas turbine and diesel plants, as well as pumped storage hydro. Both economic and environmental benefits are considered after the technical evaluation is completed.

Gilbert Associates, Inc., 1981, Modular Hydro-Dam Concept Definition Study, NTIS No. DE-82000113 or DOE/ID-12207-T1.

This study explored the potential for developing economical new ultra-low head sites using the modular hydro-dam concept. The concept would use truck-transportable power modules and cable-supported fabric dams.

Haroldsen, R. D., and F. B. Simpson, 1981, Micro Hydropower in the UnitedStates, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG&G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, Idaho, Waterpower 1981 Conference Washington,D.C., NTIS No. DE-81028271 or EGG-M-02701.

An assessment study of the interest and problems relating to the development of micro hydropower, i.e., capacities of less than 100 kW, was completed in December 1980 under DOE sponsorship. A total of 62 individuals from 10 states and four groups, i.e., developers, A/E firms, equipment manufacturers, and State and Federal agencies, were polled to determine their perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of micro-hydro developments and the needs for such developments. Financing, technical assistance, and help with the economic analysis and regulatory aspects of micro-hydro development appeared to be the paramount needs. Whether or not a specific site can be successfully developed depends on site conditions. A micro-hydro plant discussed as an example is shown to be a poor investment (e.g., maximum $200 per month return on $60,000 investment).


Chas T. Main, Inc., 1980, Half Moon Cove Tidal Project, Feasibility Report, Boston, Massachusetts, NTIS No. DOE/ID-12089-T1.

This is the feasibility study of the Half Moon Cove Tidal Power Project proposed for a small cove in the northern part of Cobscook Bay in the vicinity of Eastport, Maine. The study addresses technical, economic, legal, and environmental aspects of the proposal. Tides at Half Moon Cove range from a maximum spring of 26.2 ft to a near tide of 12.8 ft. Using these tides, it was determined that two 6 MW units could produce an annual energy of 37million kWh at a cost of 78mill/kWh.

Acres American, Inc., 1980, Small Hydro Plant Development Program, Vol. 1. Text, NTIS No. DE-81023052 or DOE/ID-01570-T21(V.1).

Small Hydro Plant Development Program, Vol. 2. NTIS No. DOE/ID-01570-T21(V.2) App.A-K or ID0-110094V2 App. A-K.

Small Hydro Plant Development Program, Vol. 3. NTIS No. DE-81023060 or DOE/ID-01570-T21(V.3) App.L.

This study investigated the feasibility of using off-the-shelf design pumps in the turbine mode and induction motors as generators in a representative range of small hydroplant projects. A survey of available pumps revealed that on a single-unit basis, and under the most efficient operating conditions, equipment is available for plants with capacities from 180 to 6800 kW and heads in the range of 20 to 370 ft. Capital cost savings of up to 50% may be achieved over conventional units. However, the efficiencies are generally lower, requiring a life-cycle cost analysis to get the true economic viability.

Beckwith, R. W., 1980, Suggested Performance Specifications of Standard Modular Controls for the Automation of Small Hydroelectric Facilities, NTIS No. DOE/ID/01570-2.

This report discusses the automation of a typical small hydroelectric site. It provides recommended guidelines for automation of such a facility, including the use of microprocessors, fiber optics, distributed station batteries, and the use of Pascal computer language.


J. S. Gladwell and C. C. Warnick, 1979, Low Head Hydro: An Examination of an Alternative Energy Source, University of Idaho, NTIS No. ID0-1735-1.

This is a compilation of the papers delivered at a seminar, "Low Head Hydroelectric Technology: Problems and Opportunities of an Alternative Energy Source," held at the University of Idaho on June 6 and 7, 1978. The papers were divided into six categories: (a) An Overview, (b)Economics, (c) Low Head Turbines, (d)The Government Presence, (e) The Environment, and (f)Surveys of Energy Potential.

Fouad, A. A. et al., 1979, Effect of Reduced Inertia on the Transient Stability of a Power System, Final Report, 2 vols., Engineering Research Institute, Iowa State University, NTIS No.PB-300 912/3 or Report No.ISU-ERI-AMES-80026.

This report examines the influence of significant amounts of low head hydro generation (low inertia machines) on the transient stability of an existing power system. A simplified power system was selected for this computer study, consisting of three generators, nine buses, three loads, and the transmission network connecting them. A fourth generator represented the remote low-inertia generation. The study was performed for the U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation contract No. 9-07-83-V0711 and U.S. Department of Energy Agreement EG-77-36-1024.

Mueller, B. L., 1979, Feasibility Determination for Hydroelectric Development at Thermalito Afterbay with STRAFLOW Turbine Generators, Final Report, Aerojet Manufacturing Company, Fullerton, California, NTIS No.DOE/ID-01817-2.

The report summarizes the results of an independent study conducted under a cost-sharing contract with the U.S. DOE by Aerojet Manufacturing Company, International Engineering Company, Inc., and Sulzer Brothers, Inc., to determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing the hydroelectric potential of the Thermalito Afterbay discharge. The study shows the site to have a flow rate of from 0 to 18,000 cfs with an average of 3,934 cfs, and a head of approximately 27 ft. The proposed hydroplant would consist of two American-built Straflow turbines, using 6500cfs of flow at 27.3ft of head, with 13,250 kW of capacity. The annual energy would be 48.82GW at a cost of approximately 42 mill/kWh.

Small/Low Head Hydropower PRDA-1706 Contractors' Symposium, Albany, NewYork, May8-10, 1979, NTIS No. CONF-7905154.

The proceedings covers both the remaining five of 54 feasibility assessments performed under DOE's Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA-ET-78-D-07-1706) and the presentations of the symposium. Papers are on regional planning, FERC licensing and status, feasibility studies and their costs, and specific sites.

EG&G Idaho, 1979, Small/Low Head Hydropower PRDA-1 706 Feasibility Assessments, Executive Summaries, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, NTISNo. DOE/ID-01570-1.

These executive summaries are 54 of the 59 feasibility assessments performed under U.S. DOE's Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA-ET-78-D-07-1706).

Schneider, D. J., et al., 1979, Schneider Lift Translator System, Low Head Hydro Feasibility Study Final Report, Schneider Lift Translator Co., NTIS No. DOE/RA/01693-T1.

This report covers the results of three tasks performed on the Schneider engine to demonstrate technical feasibility. Task 1 established basic design criteria for a prototype and probable costs of the engine when placed in production. Task 2 tested a state-of-the-art model to evaluate designs of guide vanes, establish efficiencies, and refine cost projections. Task 3 resulted in the construction and testing of a prototype model based on a design to be installed at a canal drop.

Fric, P. A., and G. C. Alexander, 1979, Cost of Controls for Small Hydroelectric Plants or River Systems, Final Report, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oregon State University, NTIS No. DOE/ET/28310-1.

This technical paper is written for engineers and system scientists familiar with hydroelectric plants and control theory. It addresses the following topics mathematically: dam dynamics, flow control through propeller turbines, onsite head-generation control, and complete mathematical dam models.

Alward, R., S. Eisenbart, and J. Volkman, 1979, Micro/Hydropower, Reviewing an Old Concept, National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, Montana, NTIS No. DOE/ET/01752-1.

This is a simple introduction to all aspects of micro/hydropower, defined here as less than 100-kW output. It describes a variety of unit types and discusses many considerations, for example, economics, financing, legal, and institutional requirements. A resource directory of additional information is included.


VerPlanck, W. K. and W. W. Wayne, Jr., 1978, Report on Turbogenerating Equipment for Low Head Hydroelectric Developments, Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, Massachusetts, NTIS No. IDO-1962-1.

This report summarizes the selected turbogeneration equipment suitable for low head hydroelectric plants, using information from the Stone and Webster Corporation files (particularly for the Rock Island Hydroelectric Project) and from visits to manufacturers' laboratories and to other hydroelectric plants. The following types of hydraulic turbogenerator systems are discussed: Alstom-Neyrpic bulb turbines, Ossberger cross-flow turbines, Escher Wyss Straflow Turbines, Barber Mini-Hydel turbines, and the Allis-Chalmers series of standard tube turbines.


Wayne, W. W., Jr., 1977, Tidal Power Study for the United States Energy Research and Development Administration, 2 vols., Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, Massachusetts, NTIS No. DGE-2293-3 V.1 and DGE/2293-3 V.2.

This report discusses the potential of tidal energy as a world power source, especially two sites in the United States where tidal power could be utilized. It considers research opportunities that could reduce the costs of tidal power stations, making them more competitive as a national energy source. It also lists environmental, societal, and legal consequences (both positive and negative) of building a major power plant.

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